Peter burke the italian renaissance culture and society in italy - купить  
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Integrated yet comprehensive, the collection of Italian Renaissance portraits is outstanding even when considered in relation to the rich pictorial material to be found in the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts. As in other spheres of human endeavour the art of portraiture developed rapidly in the new era, a development illustrated by a collection of about fifty paintings, among them works by the most famous masters. The painting of individual portraits, the representation of the individual, for secular purposes and true to life, is one of the achievements of Renaissance art; however, portraiture can be traced back to medieval religious painting. As early as in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries likenesses were included in religious compositions on altarpieces and murals. Painters commemorated their eminent contemporaries by representing them as characters in holy scenes; Dante's portrait is already to be found in Italian paintings of the fourteenth century. According to Vasari, Giotto was the first to paint living persons after nature, that is to say, ritratti di naturale; certainly his name is associated with the first famous series of portraits, now perished, the Gallery of Famous Men in the Royal Palace of Naples. As the various city states throughout Italy became more powerful, as bourgeois customs and the new way of life associated with the Renaissance became more widespread, so too there was a new development of interest in the significance of individual human activity and an increasing importance attached to man's earthly life. The increasing self-awareness of the individual, his sense of high purpose and hopes of glory demanded expression in the fine arts and provided a broad and firm foundation for the development of the art of portraiture. In a treatise on the power and glory of painting by the architect Leon Battista Alberti, portraiture is given first place.
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